Paying a Household Worker $2,100 or More? Now What?


Are you paying someone as a caregiver, babysitter, private nurse, or other in-home worker? You may be required to treat that worker as a household employee. To learn more about household employer status, read my previous blog post here.

But if you know (1) you are a household employer and (2) you will pay a household worker $2,100 or more during the year, here is a list of suggested and required steps.

Step No. 1: File for an Employer Identification Number (EIN) with the IRS. You will use the EIN in place of a social security number on future forms. This helps protect your privacy on public or shared documents.

Step No. 2: Secure a Worker’s Compensation policy. Speak to your insurance agent about acquiring a policy as a domestic (household) employer. Each state has its own requirements regarding this.

Step No. 3: Collect employment forms from your worker. These forms include USCIS Form I-9 (required) and IRS Form W-4 (if needed). Also, a state form may be needed if required by your state. Federal and state income tax withholding is generally not required unless you and your worker agree to withhold income tax.

Step No. 4: Establish a state unemployment account, if required.

Step No. 5: Determine a pay schedule: weekly, bi-weekly, bi-monthly, monthly, etc.

Step No. 6: Track hours.

Step No. 7: Calculate wages, track wages, and pay the worker.  I suggest you use MS-Excel or another spreadsheet software to keep a running total of wage and tax info. The following taxes must be withheld from the worker’s pay.

  • Social security taxes of 6.2% (employee share)
  • Medicare taxes of 1.45% (employee share)
  • Federal withholding (If your worker requests it, and you agree to withhold.)
  • State withholding (If your worker requests it, and you agree to withhold. Make sure to check your state’s withholding requirements.)

Step No. 8: Calculate household employer taxes to be paid at a future date.

  • Social security taxes of 6.2% (employer share)
  • Medicare taxes of 1.45% (employer share)
  • Federal unemployment
  • State unemployment

Step No. 9: File quarterly payroll reports. One or more of the following forms may be required.

  • State unemployment wage report and payment
  • State income tax withholding report and payment, if needed
  • Federal estimated tax payments (This is to pay tax liability associated with social security, Medicare, and Federal unemployment taxes.)

Step No. 10: File annual payroll and tax reports. This may include the following forms.

  • Federal and state Form W-2 (issued to the worker and filed with appropriate government departments)
  • Federal Form W-3 (filed with the social security administration)
  • IRS Schedule H (Form 1040) included with the individual tax return (This is where you will report payroll taxes and total wages.)

Because of the various exceptions, exemptions, and case-by-case situations, I suggest you speak with your tax professional to determine your reporting requirements. IRS Publication 926 is also a good resource.

Household Employer… Really? I’m only paying someone to help me at my home!

Do you pay someone to work at your home? Do you control what work is done and how it is done? Maybe you have one of the following types of workers.

  • Babysitter
  • Caretaker
  • Private Nurse
  • Cook
  • Health aid
  • Maid or cleaning worker
  • Yard worker
  • Others

Families have hired caretakers, private nurses, or health aids to care for a loved one. Self-employed individuals often hire a housekeeper or someone to clean their house. Parents have hired a babysitter or a nanny for their children.

If you hire someone (who is not an independent business) to work for you in your home, you may have made yourself a Household Employer

Thankfully, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provides some relief for household employers. If the worker receives wages under $2,100 (for 2018), the household employer is not required to withhold and pay social security and Medicare taxes or issue the worker a Form W-2 at year end.

But you still need to monitor that threshold very carefully because if you pay total wages over $1,000 to one or more workers in a calendar quarter, the IRS requires to you pay federal unemployment tax of 6% on the first $7,000 of wages of each worker (unless a credit applies to reduce the 6% to 0.6%). In addition, your state may require you to pay state unemployment tax. This is true for Wisconsin; for wages over $1,000 to one or more workers in a quarter, you are required to pay tax of 3.25% (new employer rate) on the first $14,000 of wages of each worker.

If you meet the wage threshold to pay unemployment taxes, you’ll need to establish a state unemployment account and file IRS Schedule H with your individual tax return.

What happens, though, if you know the worker will be paid more than $2,100 during the year? You have additional requirements. I will explain the specifics in a future blog post.

Also, keep in mind that exemptions to federal and state requirements may exist if you pay wages (even if more than $2,100) to the below individuals.

  • Your spouse,
  • Your child under the age of 21,
  • Your parent, or
  • Any employee under the age of 18.

Because of the various exceptions, exemptions, and case-by-case situations, I suggest you speak with your tax professional to determine your reporting requirements. IRS Publication 926 is also a good resource.

Confused about Medicare Parts


This CPA needed a Medicare refresher. Do you need a refresher too?

Medicare Part A is considered hospital insurance and covers hospital care, skilled nursing facility care, nursing home care, hospice, and home health services. If you are covered under social security, you can be enrolled in Medicare A at age 65.

Medicare Part B is considered medical insurance and covers medically necessary services or supplies and preventive services. It covers things like clinical research, ambulance services, medical equipment, mental health, second opinions before surgery, and outpatient prescription drugs. Part B does not provide general prescription drug coverage.

Medicare Part C (also known as Medicare Advantage or MA Plans) is a plan that includes Part A and Part B, with most plans also offering Part D.

Medicare Part D is a voluntary prescription drug insurance. While it is voluntary, you will receive late enrollment penalties for not having drug coverage. If you do not select Part D coverage, you have an option to have drug coverage in Part C or other Medicare health plans.

Medigap is a supplemental insurance sold by private companies. You cannot have a Medigap policy unless you also have Part A and Part B. As its name implies, it fills the “gap” and pays for services not covered by Part A and Part B. You also cannot have both Medigap and Part C; you may only have one or the other.

Some things to remember:

  • Plan B is the not the same as Part B. Medigap policies offer a Plan B option.
  • Original Medicare is considered Part A and Part B. The government (Medicare) provides this coverage.
  • The cost of Part B is a fixed, monthly amount based upon your income.
  • The cost of Part C varies based upon the plan chosen. provides a good starting point in learning more.

Accounting/tax Tip: If you are self-employed and enrolled in Medicare, the cost of your medical insurance may qualify as an above-the-line deduction on your individual tax return. To deduct, your business must have a net profit, and other rules may apply. Check with your tax professional to determine eligibility to deduct. Also, see IRS Publication 535, page 18, for more information.